© 2014 Phys.org Finding sea plankton on the outside of the ISS would be remarkable, as the outside of the station is of course exposed to space—a hostile environment, to say the least. NASA officials reported that they were aware that Russian cosmonauts were conducting experiments on the exterior of the space station (primarily on windows known as illuminators), but were unaware of what they entailed. They note that cosmonauts have conducted such experiments as recently as this past week. The same officials report that they have not heard the results of any findings regarding the experiments from the Russian scientists directly, and thus, cannot comment on what the Russians are claiming. One scientist with NASA, Lynn Rothschild, suggested that if the claims turn out to be true, the plankton likely made its way to the ISS aboard a space station module.Reports of the sea plankton findings have come, ITAR-TASS reports, from Vladimir Solovyev, chief of the Russian ISS orbital mission—he’s also reporting that the type of plankton found is not native to the parts of Russia where spacecraft are launched—he theorizes that air currents could have pushed the plankton to the station (plankton is known to make its way into the atmosphere). The findings, he continues, confirm that organisms can live on the outer surface of the space station, something Russian scientists have apparently been studying for over a year—though he didn’t actually come right out and say that the specimens found were still alive. He also reports that the outside of the space station is covered with material from spacecraft engines that is emitted as they come and go. Of concern are the illuminators, which now need to be polished. Explore further The International Space Station is featured in this image photographed by an STS-132 crew member on board the Space Shuttle Atlantis after the station and shuttle began their post-undocking relative separation. Credit: NASA/Crew of STS-132 The Russian news agency ITAR-TASS is claiming that Russian officials have confirmed that Russian cosmonauts have found sea plankton on the outside of the International Space Station. The news agency reports that the cosmonauts have also found traces of other organisms on the outside of the station as well. To date, no other news group has been able to confirm the report and thus far it appears no other agency, including NASA has been able to confirm the claims made by the Russians. Russian cargo craft docks with ISS, science satellite fails Citation: ITAR-TASS claims Russian cosmonauts have found sea plankton on outside of International Space Station (2014, August 21) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-08-itar-tass-russian-cosmonauts-sea-plankton.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Free Webinar | Sept 5: Tips and Tools for Making Progress Toward Important Goals A divided federal appeals court on Tuesday said Apple orchestrated a conspiracy with five publishers to increase e-book prices, in a victory for the U.S. Justice Department.By a 2-1 vote, the 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals agreed with a lower court judge that the conspiracy violated federal antitrust law, and that the judge acted properly in imposing an injunction to prevent a recurrence.Writing for the majority, Circuit Judge Debra Ann Livingston said that by organizing the conspiracy, “Apple found an easy path to opening its iBookstore,” while ensuring that marketwide prices rose to a level that Apple and the publishers wanted.The ruling will uphold not just Apple’s civil liability but also the terms of an injunction that limited its agreements with publishers.The decision also means Apple will be required to pay $450 million as part of a related settlement with 33 attorneys general and lawyers for a class of consumers. The accord had been contingent on Apple’s liability being upheld.Neither Apple nor the Justice Department, which had pursued the civil lawsuit to trial, responded immediately to requests for comment.The appeal followed a 2013 decision by U.S. District Judge Denise Cote in Manhattan finding that Apple played a “central role” in a conspiracy with publishers to eliminate retail price competition and raise e-book prices.The Justice Department, which secured the ruling following a non-jury trial, said the scheme caused some e-book prices to rise to $12.99 or $14.99 from the $9.99 price charged by the dominant player in the market, Amazon.com Inc.The publishers that the Justice Department said conspired with Apple include Lagardere SCA’s Hachette Book Group Inc, News Corp’s HarperCollins Publishers LLC, Penguin Group Inc, CBS Corp’s Simon & Schuster Inc and Verlagsgruppe Georg von Holtzbrinck GmbH’s Macmillan.In a dissenting opinion, U.S. Circuit Judge Dennis Jacobs said he would have reversed Cote’s 2013 ruling, finding that Apple’s behavior was pro-competitive in taking on a “monopolist,” Amazon, which controlled 90 percent of the market.”Apple took steps to compete with a monopolist and open the market to more entrants, generating only minor competitive restraints in the process,” Jacobs wrote.The case is U.S. v. Apple Inc, 2nd U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals, No. 13-3741.(Additional reporting by Joseph Ax) This story originally appeared on Reuters June 30, 2015 2 min read Register Now » Attend this free webinar and learn how you can maximize efficiency while getting the most critical things done right.